Question
1. Do we believe in souls? if so, what happens to people's souls before they are born or after they die?2. If there's no hell what are the repercussions of not following Jewish commandments or law?3. What is the Jewish perspective on abortions?4. If a child is adopted are they considered Jewish?5. What is the official stance on same sex marriages?6. If a Jewish child is adopted by non Jews are they still considered Jewish by Jewish law?7. Why are women exempt from going to Shul three times a day but men arent?8. Why do we have to wait 8 days to circumcise a boy?9. Why do we have to wait 3 years to cut a boy's hair?10. Why do we concentrate mostly on Torah teachings instead of the other books of Tanach?

Question
I read an article saying that only US is the same level with Israel. Why is US so well evaluated by the jew?