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What is one supposed to do if he does not remember whether or not he davened Mincha or Maariv and he is still within the window of time to do so?

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If one is in the middle of Pesukei Dezimra and feels the need to use the restroom, which requires taking off their tefillin, do they put them back on after using the restroom?

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Rabbi, in the morning blessings in my siddur a man thanks God for "not making me a woman". Would you kindly explain this blessing?

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Shalom rabbi, I read a book on bitachon. It said that if a man believes in own abilities then the divine Providence will be taken away from him. I have very low self esteem. I am reprogramming my subconscious mind with a book. If I reprogram my subconscious mind, immediately my reality will change. I have difficulty understanding the divine Providence. I also have other subconscious blocks. I should change myself with certain practices like visualization. If I visualize, I visualize in the present. Am I believing my own abilities and ignoring divine Providence if I follow visualization and changing self image? I have guilt everytime I follow visualization. Should I stop changing by subconscious mind and believe in Hashem and pray to him? Or should I practice reprogramming subconscious mind and believe in Hashem at the same time. The latter is causing guilt in me. Please help me. Thank you

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Below I will provide multiple Pesukim from throughout Tanach which in my mind contradict each other. If you would be able to provide me with a reason behind these flaws I would greatly appreciate that. Mentions of Other Gods: Numbers 25:1-3 “While Israel was staying at Shittim, the menfolk profaned themselves by whoring with the Moabite women, who invited the menfolk to the sacrifices for their god. The menfolk partook of them and worshipped that god. Thus Israel attached itself to Baal-peor and Adonai was incensed with Israel.” Psalms 16:2 “I say to the Lord, “You are my benefactor; there is none above You.” (yet there is no mention of the fact that there should also be none below him) Psalms 16:4 “Those who espoused another [god] may have many sorrows! I will have no part of their bloody libations; their names will not pass my lips.” Mentions of Not Worshipping other Gods: Psalms, 135:5 “For I know that the Lord is great, that our Lord is greater than all gods.” Exodus 20:1-3 “God spoke all these words, saying: I Adonai am your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, the house of bondage: you shall have no other gods besides Me.” Exodus 23:13 “Be on guard concerning all that I have told you. Make no mention of the names of other gods; they shall not be heard on your lips.” Jeremiah 25:6 “Do not follow other gods, to serve them and worship them. Do not vex Me with what your own hands have made, and I will not bring disaster upon you.” Kings I 11:10 “and had commanded him about this matter, not to follow other gods; he did not obey what God had commanded.” Exodus 34:14 “for you must not worship any other god, because Adonai, whose name is Impassioned, is an impassioned God.” Mention against their being any other Gods: Deuteronomy 4:35 “It has been clearly demonstrated to you that Adonai is God; there is none else.” Deuteronomy 4:39 “Know therefore this day and keep in mind that Adonai alone is God in heaven above and on earth below; there is no other.” Deuteronomy 32:39 “See, then, that I, I am the One; There is no god beside Me. I deal death and give life; I wounded and I will heal: None can deliver from My hand.” Samuel II 7:22 You are great indeed, O Lord God! There is none like You and there is no other God but You, as we have always heard.” Deuteronomy 6:4 “Hear O Israel! Adonai is our God, Adonai alone.” My concern comes from the fact that the above statements (all taken verbatim from Sefaria.org) contradict each other. In some areas of the Torah, it says not to worship other gods. But it mentions nothing of whether the other gods are legitimate. And then in other areas, it mentions the fact that there is no other god but our god. And further, there are places where it says that you shouldn’t serve the other gods because they aren’t legitimate. So which is it? As children, we are taught that there are no other gods and that Shema is so holy because it reminds us not to treat anything else like a god and that there are no other gods. But then in other areas of the Torah, it says that there are other gods even if they are under the power of Adonai. I do not approach this to profane your religion or to try to convince you that it’s illegitimate but I approach you to settle the doubts in my mind that this religion is flawed. Sincerely, Anon

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Hello, I am a high school student in Australia studying Judaism and their different beliefs about certain beginning and end of life technologies. For my essay, i have chosen the ethical debates surrounding the use of IVF. I was wondering what perspectives the different branches (reform, conservative, and/or orthodox Jews) believe regarding the following dilemmas: the status of the embryo, especially regarding the surplus embryos that don't get used for the pregnancy the emotional pressures of the mother, especially for multiple rounds of IVF and the financial cost and access, regarding who has access, and the pressures of the finances on the mother. any help will be greatly appreciated! I look forward to hearing back from you, Ruby

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I had embraced the ideology which is very similar to the philosophy of Amalek for 2 years in early 20's. There is no God, everything happens coincidently, morality is relative, and so on. I only recently knew that those ideas are very disgusting in the eye of HaShem. I really didn't know that that's so harmful. Now I firmly believe that HaShem runs the world, and there is the Divine purpose behind everything. What shall I do to be forgiven for my sin of believing philosophy of Amalek? What shall I do?