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Shalom Aleichem Dear Rabbi, 1) What do these exactly mean? צֶ֣מַח חֹ֖טֶר נֵ֖צֶר יוֹנֵק 2) And which of them are synonymous with each other?

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Dear Rabbi, If some people have a Yiddish rather than a Hebrew name that is used for ritual purposes (e.g. getting an aliya, praying for the sick), can one have an English name for ritual use? What makes it so a Yiddish name can be used, but no one uses English names ritually? And what if someone only has an English name, but none in Hebrew or Yiddish? Can that person (or their son) receive an aliya under an English name?
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Dear Rabbi, can the letter het ח be pronounced KH? For example: "Ḥizkiyya" "Menaḥem" "Yoḥanan" Can we pronounce "Ḥizkiyya" "Menaḥem" "Yoḥanan" as: Hizkiyya, Menahem, Yohanan and not as Khizkiyya, Menakhem, Yokhanan? Can we ever pronounce the letter het ח as h and not KH?
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We all know that Christmas is not a Jewish holiday. But living in a majority Christian country, Christmas is unavoidable as a part of our lives in some way. Most notably, most of us have the day off from work. And I’ve noticed some Orthodox synagogues host Chinese dinners and the kosher Chinese restaurants offer Christmas Eve specials. How far are we allowed to go to enjoy this day, e.g. spending fun time with family and friends we rarely get to see?
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In ancient Jewish history, many people had the label of ‘tzaddik,’ all while they committed the egregious acts of murder, kidnap, and forbidden sex acts to name a few. Today, there are numerous Jews who would never dare do any of these things and are generally upstanding, caring individuals and many are very learned in Torah as well. Yet hardly anyone in modern times is described as a tzaddik. What makes it so the legacy of all the ancient tzaddikim forgives these horrific acts while not stripping them of the tzaddik label, but most people today who fill their lives with mitzvot will never acquire the title of tzaddik?

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While studying Michtav Me'Eliyahu, by Rabbi Dessler, I came across the terms "gadlut d'mochin" and "katnut d'mocin" several times. What do these terms mean?

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I have a question not about faith, but about lineage. This whole ancestry thing has gotten so popular as so many are shelling out a lot of money to find out where they came from. But in the Tanach the Jews kept incredible records pertaining to ancestry. Are most Jews still able to trace their lineage way back, or was that just an ancient thing?
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Looking for a programming job, but working for a Jewish organization in all NJ, DE, NYC, East PA. Fulltime or contract. Can you be of any help?