First 2000 years known as "desolate years" because monotheism and Torah had not yet been propagated.
Creation, Flood, Tower of Babel
Birth of Abraham in Ur of the Chaldeas, center of Sumerian culture.
Early Bronze Age
Noachide Laws, Chaldean and Sumerian Culture
Abraham begins to doubt idols and search for truth
Ziggurats of Ur
Beginning of the 2000 years of propagation of Torah and monotheism
Abraham and Sarah start teaching Torah. Beginnings of monotheism as a way of life
Code of Hammurabi
Birth of Ishmael - son of Abraham and Hagar
Birth of Isaac. Circumcision of Abraham and his family
The Binding and near sacrifice of Isaac.
Isaac and Rebecca. Jacob and Esau. Blessings and Birthright.
Jacob, Rachel & Leah, 12 Sons = 12 Tribes. Transition from being a family to being a nation. Jacob fights with the angel and is given the name Israel, Yisrael
Hyksos Shepherd kings invade Egypt.
Joseph is sold by his brothers and is taken to Egypt.
Eventually due to his dream interpretations he becomes the Viceroy of Egypt
Hyksos driven out of Egypt.
Entry into Egypt by the 70 members of the family of Jacob. Settlement in the Land of Goshen
Enslavement begins with the death of the last of the 12 sons of Jacob, Levi. Birth of Miriam. Amram, Levi’s grandson marries Yocheved, Levi’s daughter. They have 3 children Miriam, Aaron and Moses. Batya, daughter of Pharaoh finds Moses in Nile and brings him up in Pharaoh’s palace.
Thutmose III? Pitom (Tanis) & Ramses
Moses - 5 levels of test before he is chosen as a prophet at the Burning Bush 1. Leaving palace to identify with brothers 2. Saving Jew from Egyptian oppression 3. Saving one Jew from another 4. Saving one stranger from another stranger. 5. Brings water to sheep. 6. Sees burning bush, God speaks with him.
Exodus, Desert Plagues, Red Sea, Manna, Clouds of Glory, Well of Miriam.
Thutmose IV? Seti? Pepi? Phiops? Phiops? Ramses II?
Revelation at Mt. Sinai.Written & Oral Laws given to the entire Jewish people - 3,000,000 experienced prophecy. Moses’ prophecy and authority confirmed by personal experience of every Jew; therefore no prophets or miracles may challenge the laws received at Sinai. Jews build Golden Calf to replace Moses (not God!) Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement, Jews repentance is accepted and the Second Tablets are given. Jews send 12 spies to Israel, showing lack of faith in God’s promise – despair and cry on first "9th of Av"
Moses writes 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, and puts one in the Holy Ark.
Death of Moses outside of Israel - burial place unknown
Joshua - disciple of Moses becomes the leader of the Jewish people. First ordination, semichah, in history.
Entry into Israel - 10th of Nissan. Battle of Jericho. Seven years of conquest followed by seven years of settlement on both the East bank and the West bank of the Jordan River. Condition of entry to Israel was acceptance of the Torah..
Middle Bronze Age Interchange Period -Canaanite and Phoenician culture
dominate Canaan until Jewish invasion
Death of Joshua - Beginning of Period of the Judges - 12 Tribes are independent but advised and ruled by Judges.
Philistines in Gaza
Judges - Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Yair, Jeftah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli.
Samuel - Chooses Jerusalem as capital. Anoints Saul as first king of Israel - Saul loses kingdom.
Early Greek States founded
Nathan the prophet anoints Solomon.
Kings - David, Solomon- Philosopher kings. Davidic lineage starts. David writes the Psalms.
David becomes King of Israel. Anointed in Hebron and rules from there for 7 years, then moves to Jerusalem. (In 2889 Avner appoints Ish Boshet as king of Israel, who rules for two years)
Solomon becomes King of Israel. Author of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Peace and prosperity.
Building of the First Temple started
Rise of Assyrian Empire
Division of Israel & Judea. Rehovoam son of Solomon rules Judea in the South. Jeroboam son of Nevat, rules 10 Tribes in the North - Kingdom of Israel. Judea - Tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Priests & Levites.
Elijah the prophet, King Achaz & Queen Jezebel.
Isaiah - prophecies of Messianic times
Homer – The Illiad and the Odyssey
Hezekiah becomes king of Judea. Potential Messiah - and considered one of the most righteous of kings.
Under Hezekiah the kingdom became imbued with Torah learning
Shalmanazer, King of Assyria conquers Israel and settles Samaritans in the North.
Assyrians Exile the 10 Tribes. The Samaritans are brought to Israel, become a thorn in the side of the Jews. King of Assyria invades Judea, besieges Jerusalem.
Senacherib King of Assyria, invades Israel.
Beginnings of Rome
Jeremiahbegins his prophecies and predicts the destruction of the Temple.
Exile of Judah to Babylon in days of King Yehoyakim.
Rise of Babylon
Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon. Walls breached on 9th of Tammuz, sacrifices stopped on 17th of Tammuz. A remnant was left in Israel, ruled by Jewish governor, Gedaliah. On 3rd of Tishrei, Gedaliah is assassinated by other Jews.
Nebuchadnezzar emperor of Babylon
Jeremiah, Ezekiel Prophecies of destruction and exile, prophecies of return and redemption.
Socrates and Plato
Babylonian Exile, Daniel. Aramaic becomes Jewish language. Academies of Torah study flourish in Babylon. Autonomy of internal affairs granted to Jewish community.
Proclamation of Cyrus allows Jews to return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt.
|Building of Second Temple started|
Achashverosh stops Temple’s construction. Feast celebrating "extinction" of the Jews.
Purim, Mordechai, Ezra the Scribe. Renewal of settlement in Israel in the Golan heights, on the West and East banks of the Jordan river. Peaceful settlement, not military conquest.
Second Temple completed 70 years after destruction. End of the era of Prophecy.
Alexander the Great
Men of the Great Assembly establish the Liturgy.
Ptomelaic Empire in Egypt. Seleucids in Syria.
|3441||Simon The Just, the High Priest, meets Alexander of Macedon || ||313|
|3515||Ptolemy orders the Torah to be translated into Greek by 70 scholars - Septuagint || ||246|
Maccabean Revolt Greeks try to force Hellenistic culture on Jews. The Seleucids of Syria under Antiochus persecute the Jews. The Maccabees rise up in revolt, are successful and Chanukah is established as a festival. The Maccabees become kings and form an alliance with Rome against the Greeks.
164 -> 168
Jonathan brother of Judah, the Maccabee becomes king. In-fighting, intrigues and hatred ensue among the Hasmonean kings and family.
Rise of Roman Empire
Antipater & Pompeii make deal - Israel joins the Roman Empire
Herodis a paranoiac despot who persecutes the sages. He renovates the Temple to win popularity, and builds Masada and Herodion
Julius Caesar amends solar calendar
Philo of Alexandria – Jewish philosopher in Egypt.
Essenes of Qumran, writers of the Dead Sea Scrolls
Hillel and Shammai – two of the greatest Mishnaic Sages
Exile of Sanhedrin. Rabbi Yochanan ben Zachai establishes Yavneh as center of learning.
Origins of Christianity
Rabban Gamliel is leader of the Jewish people under the Roman occupation of Israel. Rome initially makes legal exceptions for Judaism, wants Jews as Roman allies not Seleucid allies, but steadily increases taxes and severity of its decrees.
|The Great Revolt against Roman rule|
66 -> 73
Romans destroy 2nd Temple- 9th of Av. About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery.
Rabbi Akivahloses his 24,000 students who die in a plague.
Masada, the suicide of the Zealots
Josephus Flavius, Jewish – Roman historian wrote the Wars of the Jews, Antiquities, and Contra-Appion.
38 -> 100
Bar Kochbah Revolt, based in Betar, is crushed on the 9th of Av. Rabbis support Bar Kochbah as Messiah until he was killed by the Romans.
Mishnah was written by Judah the Prince – He was a scholar of Davidic lineage, righteous, an expert in Hebrew, and fabulously wealthy, also a close friend of the Roman governor, Antonius.
Pescennius Niger, Roman governor says to the Jews - "You ask me to relieve your lands of their taxes; would that I could tax the very air you breathe."
2000 years of Messiah begins – time which potentially could have been the Messianic era
Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai teaches the Zohar to his students.
Constantine forbids Jews in Jerusalem. Beginnings of theological anti-Semitism.
Main focus of learning in the Jewish communities of Israel and Babylon becomes the Mishnah. Communal study seminars convened regularly.
Constantine becomes Christian Rome/Byzantium split. Nicean Council decides on Christian dogma
Jerusalem Talmudis edited by R. Muna ben Yonah, R.Yosi ben Bun
Julian the Apostate
Hillel II - calendar. Theodosius forbids Sanhedrin to assemble. Calendar adopted at clandestine and maybe last meeting of the Sanhedrin.
Babylonian Talmudis edited by Ravina and Rabbi Ashi. Last time that all Jewish scholars voted and discussed issues and came to unanimous agreement on the contents of the Talmud.
Fall of Roman Empire
Geonic period begins.
Rav Hai Gaon, Rav Sherira Gaon, Rav Achai Gaon
Beginnings of Islam – Mohammed
Split of Eastern and Western Churches
Jews reject Islam and are expelled from Arabia. Rejection by Jews of Islam turns into hatred of Jews by Moslems.
Mohammed in Mecca and Medina
Arabs invade Israel
Emperor Heraclius decrees Jews of Byzantium to be forced into Christianity. 613-661 also in Spain, Gaul & Italy.
90% of Jews live under Moslems. Generally better off under Islam than under Christianity - closer philosophically (monotheism) and ethnically. Jews are Dhimmis, a tolerated minority, under Islam, but are a persecuted minority under Christians. Judaism is problematic to Islam, but is a contradiction to Christianity.
Khazar nation in Azerbaijan converts to Judaism.
Moslem Arabs invade Spain
Split of Sunnis and Shi’ites
Anan Ben David founds the Karaite movement and rejects the Oral Law
Rabbi Saadya Gaonwrites the first systematic work of Jewish philosophy, partially to combat the Karaite challenge to tradition.
Emperor Charlemagne-771 – 814
Growth of European and Nth. African Torah centers. Rabeinu Gershom, Light of the Exile, makes decrees against forced divorce, polygamy and reading others’ mail. Decline of Babylonian Academies
RIF - Rabbi Isaac Alfasi of Morocco creates first condensation and codification of Jewish Law - R. Zerachiah Halevi writes critique of code.
Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki - RaSHICommentaries on virtually all classic texts. Concise and deep. Systematic grammar, translations, elucidation of verses based on Midrash and Talmud.
Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra – Commentary on Torah, argues with Karaites using logic & grammar.
9th of Av - Start of First Crusade resulting in widespread slaughter of Jewish communities in the Rhineland.
Godfrey de Boullion, leader of Crusade - "Kill the heretics amongst us before going to Holy Land."
|4859d> ||Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders and all Jews in the city are killed|| ||1099|
Maimonides - Rambam, Rabi Moses ben Maimon - student of the Spanish, Middle Eastern & Nth. African schools. Wrote Guide for the Perplexed, Mishneh Torah – Comprehensive Code of Judaism, Book of the Commandments, 13 Principles of Faith, Commentary on Mishnah, Letters, Medical writings. Physician to the Egyptian court. Saladin is his patient.
Saladin leads Moslems in fight against Crusaders.
Expulsion from parts of Germany. Libels of desecrating the "host," and blood libels. Rabenu Yaakov Tam – Authors of commentary of Tosafas on Talmud - French and German schools of scholars.
Almohades bring Islamic intolerance to Spain fostering the spread of Spanish-Jewish culture outside the borders of Spain particularly in Provence, at the crossroads of Spain and Europe.
R. Yehudah Hachasid - Chasidei Ashkenaz - Era of the Pietists of Germany
Lateran Council – decrees badge of "shame" for Jews
1150 - 1217
Benjamin of Tudela, Jewish traveler, writes the Travels of Benjamin
Expulsion from France
Third Crusade - Widespread massacres of Jews in England
Richard the Lion Heart
R. Yehudah Halevi – Writes his work of philosophy, the Kuzari, and many Hebrew poems.
The Jews of York, in England, are massacred.
Nachmanides(1194 - 1270) Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman. Defender of earlier sages against later critiques. Commentaries on Bible and Talmud, great Kabbalist.
Saladin in Jerusalem
Burning of Maimonides’ Guide in Provence (possible contributing cause for later book-burning by anti – Semitic authorities)
Many authors of Tosafot immigrate to Israel.
Burning of 24 cartloads of Jewish books in Paris.
Disputation of Ramban with Pablo Christiani in Barcelona in 1263.
Rabenu Yona of Gerona writes The Gates of Repentance.
Rabbi Levi ben Gershon - Astronomer, inventor of Jacob’s Staff
Expulsion from England on the 9th of Av.
Rashba decrees ban of excommunication on the study of philosophy for those under 25 years of age.
Expulsion of Jews from most of France
Poisoning & conspiracy libels against Jews during Black Plague result in pogroms & expulsions. Rabenu Asher, the Rosh, flees from Germany to Toledo, Spain, the nexus of Sephardi and Ashkenazi cultures, which enables his son R. Yaakov to combine the scholarship of both in the Arbah Turim, the predecessor to the Code of Jewish Law.
1348 – 1351
Expulsion from Provence
The Ibn Tibbon family, translate many major works of Jewish scholarship from Arabic to Hebrew.
Expulsion from Austria.
Continuous insecurity in Europe; discrimination, expulsions and pogroms. e.g. City of Speyer: Jews out 1405, in 1421, out 1430, in 1434, out 1435, in 1465
Ottoman Turks capture Israel from Moslems creating impetus for Jewish settlement in Israel although numbers are small.
Fall of Byzantium
First printing of Jewish books on printing press
Inquisition culminates with the expulsion from Spain on the 9th Av. Expulsions from Italy and Sicily.
Don Isaac Abarbanel - commentary on Tanach, advisor to Queen Isabella
Columbus sets sail for America
Leonardo Da Vinci
First printing of Talmud by Daniel Bomberg in Venice. Pagination, commentary selection and layout of Bomberg still used today.
Jewish books subject to Christian censorship.
15th and 16th Centuries see large migrations to Lithuania and Poland
The Reformation. Martin Luther - "The Jews & Their Lies." Rejection leading to hatred
Kabbalists of Safed. Rav Yitzchak Luriah, The Ari (1534-72) Rabbi Chaim Vital, Rabbi Shlomo Alkabetz, author of Lecha Dodi, and Alsheich. Aliyah gradually increases.
Code of Jewish Law - Shulchan Aruch - Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575) R. Moses Isserless (1525-1572) Meets with almost universal acceptance. Many commentaries written on the Code.
Shakespeare - 1596 "Merchant of Venice" - No Jews in England since 1290
Chmielnicki Pogroms - unspeakable cruelty. Jews dejected, searching for hope, feeling of immanent Messianic revelation. Total Jewish Population was 3.5 million. In Eastern Europe, 1.3 million.
100,000 were brutally murdered, and 300 communities destroyed.
Russian - Polish War
Shabtai Zvi , the false Messiah attracts with charisma, permissiveness, false hope and mysticism
Spanish-Portuguese Jews establish the Touro Synagogue in Rhode Island, the first synagogue in America. Peter Stuyvesent is reluctant to admit Jews to New Amsterdam. Baruch Spinoza, the Dutch Jewish philosopher, forerunner of modern Bible criticism & perhaps unintentionally of modern anti-Semitism, is excommunicated in Amsterdam.
Shabtai Tzvi meets Nathan of Gaza who becomes his "Prophet"
Shabtai Tzvi abolishes the fast of the 9th of Av and declares a march on Jerusalem to capture it from the Sultan. He is imprisoned by the Sultan, converts to Islam, and is eventually executed.
Great Fire of London
Sir Isaac Newton
R. David Halevi Segal a refugee of pogroms, who lost two sons in pogroms, was exiled to Moravia. He and Rav Shabtai Cohen wrote two of the greatest commentaries on the Code of Jewish Law.
Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov founds the Chassidic movement in Galicia, Ukraine and Podolia. Emphasis on the Rebbe, songs, joy, popularization of Kabbalistic teachings, sincerity, fervor, prayer and spontaneity.
Moses Chaim Luzzatto- (RaMCHaL) Responsible for systemization of Kabbalah into logical steps and making it more accessible. His two great ethical classics are the Path of the Just, and The Way of G-d.
R.Yehezkel Landau, author of many responsa, major opponent of the Chassidic movement.
The Gaon(Genius), Rabbi Elijah of Vilna – the GRA.Believe in the supremacy of Torah study through the intellectual efforts of man. Was the principal opponent of Hassidism. He objected to excesses due to emphasis on joy and spontaneity, to charismatic (as opposed to intellectual) leadership, the popularization of Kabbalah (fear of Shabtai Zvi phenomenon), and new customs and changes in liturgy.
Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, author of mystical work, the Tanya, founds the Chabad–Lubavitch Chassidic movement.
Volozhin Yeshiva founded - "Mother of Yeshivos"
Voltaire - "Religion of Reason"
Conflict of R. Yaakov Emden and R. Yonason Eybeshutz over accusations of Shabeteanism
Beginnings of liberalization in Western Europe. Some Jews are allowed to live outside the ghettos
American Revolution ends. Declaration of Independence
Moses Mendelssohn, proponent of "Religion due to Reason," writes a German translation of the Torah. His children assimilate, and his grandchildren were all baptized.
Beginnings of pseudo-scientific, racial anti-Semitism in Europe, which was fully blown in the late 19th Century developing ultimately into Nazism in the 20th century.
The Emancipation - Emperor Franz-Josef grants citizenship to the Jews, entrance to universities and professions and permission to leave ghettoes and enter society.
Jews confined to Pales of Settlement in Russia
Equal rights for French Jews on condition. Napoleon states, "For the Jews as Jews nothing, for the Jews as Frenchmen everything."
There is heavy economic, social, intellectual and political pressure to assimilate. Four approaches are found in the Jewish community –
- Individual assimilation by Baptism and intermarriage. Heinrich Heine- "Baptism is the ticket of entry to European society"
- Adaptation of Judaism to Zeitgeist as in the Reform movement and the "science of Judaism" ; Samuel Holdheim, early Reformer, "we say merely this, anything which upon unbiased examination does not conform to the current religious spirit holds for us no authority."
- Isolation from emancipation and modernity, creation of voluntary ghetto to fight assimilation - Hassidism, Chasam Sofer.
- Involvement in modern world without compromising of Halachic standards - Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.
Surnames introduced for Jews in Europe - 1803
Immigration to Israel by Chassidim and students of the Gaon of Vilna to Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, and Jerusalem. Rav Israel of Shklov writes Pe’as Hashulchan, Code of Jewish Law, specifically for Israel.
Rothschild family - prominent bankers, are unofficial representatives of Jewish community.
Battle of Waterloo
Reform Movement founded.
Hamburg Reform Temple opens with bells, an organ, German prayers and sermon
Czar makes 600 anti-Semitic decrees in Russia and forcibly recruits Jewish children into Russian army, known as Cantonists
Nicholas I – 1825 –1855
R. Samson Raphael Hirsch – Explains Judaism to the uninitiated – Writes Horeb, The Nineteen Letters and establishes modern Jewish Day School.
Damascus Blood Libel
Karl Marx - 1848
R. Israel Salanter founds the Mussar movement in Lithuania. Combating cold intellectualism, emphasis on ethics, self-improvement, general reinforcement of inner aspects of Judaism. Main students are: R. Isaac Blazer, R. Naftali Amsterdam, Alter of Kelm. Different approaches to self-improvement- Greatness of Man or lowliness of Man, self-criticism.
Crimean War – Florence Nightingale
American Civil War – 1861 – 1865
Pogroms in the Ukraine. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Prime Minister of England. Baptized by father as a child, but proud of Jewish roots.
Alexander II killed by Jewish anarchist causing anti-Semitic backlash in Russia
Immigration to USA, England, and
Reform movement in the USA. Pittsburgh Platform rejects commandments, Israel, kashrut etc.
Treif Banquet of Reform movement provokes reaction by more conservative members.
Founding of Jewish Theological Seminary by Solomon Morais and beginnings of the Conservative Movement.
Rise of nationalism in Europe and Balkans, especially Germany.
Dreyfus Trial, Theodore Herzl writes The Old-New State, creating the political Zionist movement.
Nicholas II- Czar of Russia
1st Zionist Congress in Basle.
Agudas Israel founded as political representative of non-Zionist Orthodox Jews.
Mass immigration of Jews to Israel.
Pioneers establish agricultural settlements in Israel.
First modern Olympic Games
Vote on Israel vs. Uganda or Madagascar at Zionist Congress.
Sir Moses Montefiore and the Rothchilds continue the tradition of the interceding with governments on behalf of Jews.
Mass immigrations to the United States - 2 million Jews by 1924. There is no official anti-Semitism in the USA, but there is no work for Shabbat observers, ignorance abounds, there is no quality Jewish education, and it is extremely difficult to keep kosher - many Jews abandon Orthodoxy and Judaism for these reasons. Many came to the US with intent to abandon Judaism. Left-wing Yiddish newspapers, like the Jewish Daily Forward, are socialist and assimilationist, their view is that traditional Judaism is unsuitable for America.
More Jews immigrate to Israel.
Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis
Conservative Movement - Solomon Schechter
Protocols of the Elders of Zion – Anti-Semitic fabrication by Nilus, Russian agent and anti-Semite.
"Kill the Jews & save Russia" pogroms.
Albert Einstein – Relativity and E=MC2
Beilis Trial - blood libel in Russia.
Leo Frank lynched by mob in Georgia, USA, accused of ritual murder.
Bernard Malamud- The Fixer
First World War - Britain declares war on Germany on the 9th Av. Jews fight on both sides of the conflict. 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in the War. Many Jews live in the battle zones.
Founding of Yeshiva University in New York.
1st World War
21 million wounded
8.5 million dead
The Balfour Declarationis written, in which Britain "viewed with favor" the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.
Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan, the Chafetz Chaim, is famous for his campaigns for ethical speech.
Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk – Promotes in depth critical analysis of Talmud.
There are now3,250,000 Jews in the USA
Demonstration and riots against Czar Nicholas II
Britain Captures Palestine from Turks - General Allenby with assistance of Nili spy network.
Jews organize units in British army lead by Vladimir Jabotinsky and Yosef Trumpeldor
Sarah Schnirer starts first Jewish school for girls, Beis Yaacov.
Lawrence of Arabia
|60,000 Jews killed during Russian Revolution. Petlurya in Ukraine establishes independence, pogroms begin, and thousands of Jews are brutally murdered.|
Treaty of Versailles
British Mandate over Palestine. The Jewish underground, the Hagganah organizes immigration into Palestine, the Irgun revolts against the British. Arabs attack Jewish settlements in Israel, Trumpeldor killed in Tel Chai..
Mordechai Kaplan founds the Reconstructionist Movement
League of Nations
Arabs riot in Jaffa killing 47 Jews. 4 Jews are killed defending Petach Tikvah
End of Russian civil war leaves Communists in power.
Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin begins the Daf Yomi program – a coordinated daily study of a page of Talmud around the world, in which the Talmud is completed in about 7 1/2 years.
120,000 Jews now in Israel and 4,000,000 Jews in the USA
Arabs riot against Jews in Israel, and murder 67 Jews in Hebron, including the elderly, women and children.
Franz Rosenzweig, an assimilated German-Jewish philosopher returns to Judaism after a 15 year search.
Rav Avraham Yitzchak Kook becomes the major ideologue of the religious Zionist movement.
Wall Street Crash
The Great Depression
18 Jews killed in Arab riots in Tel-Aviv and Jaffa. This marks the beginning of the "Arab Revolt" that claimed the lives of 500 Jews over the next three years.
Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, incited by Nazis, in which Jews are attacked and killed, businesses, homes and synagogues ransacked and burnt down. Tens of thousands are sent to concentration camps.
United States introduces 5 day work week.
Britain introduces "White Papers" that drastically reduce Jewish immigration to Israel. Britain imprisons Jewish refugees in Cyprus, and in camps in Israel, and sends many back to Europe.
Second World War begins with German invasion of Poland
The Nazis systematically murder 6,000,000 in the Holocaust with the enthusiastic help of much of the Gentile population in Europe. The world is indifferent to the suffering of the Jews.
Warsaw Ghetto Revolt
Rav Aharon Kotler establishes Lakewood Yeshiva in New Jersey, which grows into largest Yeshivah outside of Israel.
Ponevezh Yeshivah, founded in Bnei Brak by Rav Kahaneman
40 million die in Europe
The State of Israel Declares Independence after the United Nations vote for partition of Palestine. Arabs reject the vote and attack Israel, beginning the War of Independence. 600,000 Jewish refugees from Arab countries flee to Israel. 400,000 Arab refugees from Israel flee to Arab countries.
Renewal of Yeshivos in Israel.
Assimilation and secularization of Sephardi Jewry.
Russia in Hungary
War of Attrition - Fedayeen, hijackings, snipers, Katushyas, bombs and terrorism.
Pope apologizes for Christian anti-semitism.
PLO Covenant written.
Six-Day War and the Liberation of Jerusalem on the 28th of Iyar. The Western Wall, Hebron, the Golan Heights, Gaza, Judea, Samaria and the Sinai Peninsula are now in Jewish hands.
The Soviet Union breaks ties with Israel.
The Vatican calls for internationalization of Jerusalem
Martin Luther King
The Baal-Teshuva Movement – Secular Jewish youth start to return to Judaism
Refuseniks in Russia, return to Judaism, attempt to immigrate to Israel. Founding of Yeshivot for beginners - Ohr Somayach, Aish Hatorah, Dvar Yerushalayim, Machon Shlomo, Neve Yerushalayim
Russia invades Czechoslovakia – 1968
Landing on moon – 1969
The Yom-Kippur War, in which Israel is attacked by the Arab nations, leaves Israel with two day’s ammunition left before US airlift, and 2,500 Israeli soldiers killed. More Israelis return to Judaism than after ’67 war. Israel experiences profound demoralization, increased emigration from Israel, and a lack of idealism amongst the secular Zionists increases.
Arab Oil Embargo
Peace treaty with Egyptby Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat results in the loss of the Sinai peninsula and with a "Cold peace"
Ethiopian Jews start coming to Israel.
Miracle at Entebbe – In 1976, Israeli commandos free Jewish hijack victims in Uganda.
Arabs alienate Egypt for making peace with Israel
Israel bombs Iraqi nuclear reactor and receives worldwide condemnation UN resolution condemning attack sponsored by Kuwait
The Lebanon War —Katushyas, hostages, terrorism. PLO’s state within a state. Siege of Beirut.
Start of the Intifada, massive unrest and violent protest by Palestinians which ultimately lead to the signing of the Oslo Accords.
Fall of Berlin Wall – 1989
Mass immigration of Russian Jews to Israel
Glasnost and Perestroika under Gorbachev
Gulf War - Iraq invades Kuwait- US troops in Saudi Arabia - UN ultimatum January 15th - USA attacks Iraq 16th - air bombardments. February 23 - Coalition forces enter Kuwait and Iraq and begin the ground-war. 39 Iraqi Scud missiles land in Israel, the population of Israel receives gas masks, but the attacks result in only two casualties.
Russian immigration continues. Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry.
Abandonment of Kurds.
Signing of the Oslo Accords – Yitzchak Rabin and Yassir Arafat
Assassination of Prime Minister Rabin - wave of anti-religious sentiment sweeps country. Likud government under Netanyahu elected.
Election of Ehud Barak and a Labour government. Success of rabidly anti-religious Shinui and Meretz parties. Success of religious Sephardi, Shas party. Barak begins negotiations with Syria.
Fears of Y2K bug
Arafat rejects Barak’s offers of joint sovereignty of Jerusalem and giving up 95% of Judea and Samaria.
Begins new assault on Israel with extensive attacks on civilians everywhere..
Ariel "Arik" Sharon elected as Prime Minister