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Jewish History Timeline


Question:

Can you tell me some basic background of Judaism and Israel?



AskTheRabbi.org answered:

JEWISH HISTORY TIMELINE

by Rabbi Mordechai Becher (author of Gateway to Judaism)

From Abraham until Modern Times

*Events listed happened either on the year listed or in-between that date and the next.

Jewish Year

Jewish Events

World Events

Civil  Year

1-2000

First 2000 years known as "desolate years" because monotheism and Torah had not yet been propagated.

Creation, Flood, Tower of Babel

 

1948

Birth of Abraham in Ur of the Chaldeas, center of Sumerian culture.

Early Bronze Age
Noachide Laws, Chaldean and Sumerian Culture

1812

1951

Abraham begins to doubt idols and search for truth

Ziggurats of Ur

 

2000

Beginning of the 2000 years of propagation of Torah and monotheism

 

1760

2000

Abraham and Sarah start teaching Torah. Beginnings of monotheism as a way of life

Code of Hammurabi

1760

2034

2048

Birth of Ishmael - son of Abraham and Hagar
Birth of Isaac. Circumcision of Abraham and his family

 

1712

2085

The Binding and near sacrifice of Isaac.
Isaac and Rebecca. Jacob and Esau. Blessings and Birthright.

 

 

2108

Jacob, Rachel & Leah, 12  Sons = 12 Tribes. Transition from being a family to being a nation. Jacob fights with the angel and is given the name Israel, Yisrael

Hyksos Shepherd kings  invade  Egypt.

(2000 –1700)

1652

2199

Joseph is sold by his brothers and is taken to Egypt.
Eventually due to his dream interpretations he becomes the Viceroy of Egypt

Hyksos driven out of Egypt.

1561 1567

2238

Entry into Egypt by the 70 members of the family of Jacob.  Settlement in the Land of Goshen

18th Dynasty

1522

2331

Enslavement begins with the death of the last of the 12 sons of  Jacob, Levi. Birth of Miriam. Amram, Levi’s grandson marries Yocheved, Levi’s daughter. They have 3 children Miriam, Aaron and Moses. Batya, daughter of Pharaoh finds Moses in Nile and brings him up in Pharaoh’s palace.

Thutmose III? Pitom (Tanis) & Ramses

1392

2368

Moses -  5  levels of test before he is chosen as a prophet at the Burning Bush 1. Leaving palace to identify with brothers 2. Saving Jew from Egyptian oppression 3. Saving one Jew from another 4. Saving one stranger from another stranger.  5. Brings water to sheep. 6. Sees burning bush, God speaks with him.

 

 

2448

Exodus, Desert Plagues, Red Sea, Manna, Clouds of Glory, Well of Miriam.

Thutmose IV? Seti? Pepi? Phiops? Phiops? Ramses II?

1312

2448

Revelation at Mt. Sinai.Written & Oral Laws given to the entire Jewish people - 3,000,000 experienced prophecy. Moses’ prophecy and authority confirmed by personal experience of every Jew; therefore no prophets or miracles may challenge the laws received at Sinai. Jews build Golden Calf to replace Moses (not God!) Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement, Jews repentance is accepted and the Second Tablets are given. Jews send 12 spies to Israel, showing lack of faith in God’s promise – despair and cry on first "9th  of Av"

 

1312

 

2488

Moses writes 13 scrolls of the complete Torah and gives one to each tribe, and puts one in the Holy Ark.
Death of Moses outside of  Israel - burial place unknown

 

1273

2488

Joshua - disciple of Moses becomes the leader of the Jewish people. First ordination, semichah, in history.
Entry into Israel - 10th of Nissan. Battle of Jericho. Seven years of conquest followed by seven years of settlement on both the East bank and the West bank of the Jordan River. Condition of entry to Israel was acceptance of the Torah..

Middle Bronze Age Interchange Period -Canaanite and Phoenician culture
dominate Canaan until Jewish invasion

1271

2515

Death of Joshua - Beginning of Period of the Judges - 12 Tribes are independent but advised and ruled by Judges.

Philistines in Gaza

1245

 

Judges - Othniel, Ehud, Deborah, Gideon, Abimelech, Tola, Yair, Jeftah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, Samson, Eli. 

 

 

2885

Samuel - Chooses Jerusalem as capital. Anoints Saul as first king of Israel - Saul loses kingdom.

Early Greek States founded

875

 

Nathan the prophet anoints Solomon.

 

 

 

 

Kings - David, Solomon- Philosopher kings. Davidic lineage starts. David writes the Psalms.

Assyrian Empire

 

2892

David becomes King of Israel. Anointed in Hebron and rules from there for 7 years, then moves to Jerusalem. (In 2889 Avner appoints Ish Boshet as king of Israel, who rules for two years)

 

869

2924

Solomon becomes King of Israel. Author of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs. Peace and prosperity.

 

837

2928

Building of the First Temple started

Rise of Assyrian Empire

832

2964

Division of Israel & Judea. Rehovoam son of Solomon rules Judea in the South. Jeroboam son of Nevat, rules 10 Tribes in the North - Kingdom of Israel. Judea - Tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Priests & Levites.
Elijah the prophet, King Achaz & Queen Jezebel.

 

796

3150

Isaiah - prophecies of Messianic times

Homer – The Illiad and the Odyssey

610

3199

Hezekiah becomes king of Judea. Potential Messiah - and considered one of the most righteous of kings.

Under Hezekiah the kingdom became imbued with Torah learning

Shalmanazer, King of Assyria conquers Israel and settles Samaritans in the North.

562

3205

 

Assyrians Exile the 10 Tribes. The Samaritans are brought to Israel, become a thorn in the side of the Jews.  King of Assyria invades Judea, besieges Jerusalem.

Senacherib King of Assyria, invades Israel.
Beginnings of Rome

556

3298

Jeremiahbegins his prophecies and predicts the destruction of the Temple.

Confucius

 

3320

Exile of Judah to Babylon in days of King Yehoyakim.

Rise of Babylon

 

3338

Babylonians destroy First Temple on the 9th of Av and exile the Jews to Babylon. Walls breached on 9th of Tammuz, sacrifices stopped on 17th of Tammuz. A remnant was left in Israel, ruled by Jewish governor, Gedaliah. On 3rd of Tishrei, Gedaliah is assassinated by other Jews.

Nebuchadnezzar emperor of Babylon

423

3340

Jeremiah, Ezekiel Prophecies of destruction and exile, prophecies of return and redemption.

Socrates and Plato

422

3340

Babylonian Exile, Daniel. Aramaic becomes Jewish language. Academies of Torah study flourish in Babylon. Autonomy of internal affairs granted to Jewish community.

 

421

3386

Proclamation of Cyrus allows Jews to return to Israel. Minority returns in Nissan - same month as Exodus from Egypt.

Persian Empire

372

3390

Building of Second Temple started

Medean Empire

368

3393

Achashverosh stops Temple’s construction.  Feast celebrating "extinction" of the Jews.

 

365

3400

Purim, Mordechai, Ezra the Scribe. Renewal of settlement in Israel in the Golan heights, on the West and East banks of the Jordan river. Peaceful settlement, not military conquest.

Aristotle

358

3408

Second Temple completed 70 years after destruction. End of the era of Prophecy.

Alexander the Great

353

3426

Men of the Great Assembly establish the Liturgy.

Ptomelaic Empire in Egypt. Seleucids in Syria.

335

3441Simon The Just, the High Priest, meets Alexander of Macedon  313
3515Ptolemy orders the Torah to be translated into Greek by 70 scholars - Septuagint  246

3597-3620

Maccabean Revolt  Greeks try to force Hellenistic culture on Jews. The Seleucids of Syria under Antiochus persecute the Jews. The Maccabees rise up in revolt, are successful and Chanukah is established as a festival.  The Maccabees become kings and form an alliance with Rome against the Greeks.

 

164 -> 168

 

Jonathan brother of Judah, the Maccabee becomes king. In-fighting, intrigues and hatred ensue among the  Hasmonean kings and family.

Rise of Roman Empire

152

3696

Antipater & Pompeii make deal - Israel joins the Roman Empire

Pompeii

62

3724

Herodis a paranoiac despot who persecutes the sages. He renovates the Temple to win popularity, and builds  Masada and Herodion

Julius Caesar amends solar calendar

34 BCE

3710

Philo of Alexandria – Jewish philosopher in Egypt.

 

20

3770

Essenes of Qumran, writers of the Dead Sea Scrolls

 

10 BCE

 

Hillel and Shammai – two of the greatest Mishnaic Sages

 

30BCE

3788

Exile of Sanhedrin. Rabbi Yochanan ben Zachai establishes Yavneh as center of learning.

Origins of  Christianity

30 CE

3827

Rabban Gamliel is leader of the Jewish people under the Roman occupation of Israel. Rome initially makes legal exceptions for Judaism, wants Jews as Roman allies not Seleucid allies, but steadily increases taxes and severity of its decrees.

 

67

 

The Great Revolt against Roman rule

Titus

66 -> 73

3828

Romans destroy 2nd Temple- 9th of Av.  About 2,000,000 killed. Cruelty, Exile, Slavery. 

Vespasian

68

3830

Rabbi Akivahloses his 24,000 students who die in a plague.

 

 

3833

Masada, the suicide of the Zealots

.

73

 

Josephus Flavius, Jewish – Roman historian wrote the Wars of the Jews, Antiquities, and Contra-Appion.

 

38 -> 100

3893

Bar Kochbah Revolt, based in Betar, is crushed on the 9th of Av. Rabbis support Bar Kochbah as Messiah until he was killed by the Romans. 

Hadrian

133

3950

Mishnah was written by Judah the Prince – He was a scholar of Davidic lineage, righteous, an expert in Hebrew, and fabulously wealthy, also a close friend of the Roman governor, Antonius.

Marcus Antonius

170 -

190

3953

Pescennius Niger, Roman governor says to the Jews - "You ask me to relieve your lands of their taxes; would that I could tax the very air you breathe."

 

193

4000

2000 years of Messiah begins – time which potentially could have been the Messianic era

 

240

4000

Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai teaches the Zohar to his students.

 

 

4073

Constantine forbids Jews in Jerusalem. Beginnings of theological anti-Semitism.
Main focus of learning in the Jewish communities of Israel and Babylon becomes the Mishnah. Communal study seminars convened regularly.

Constantine becomes Christian Rome/Byzantium split. Nicean Council decides on Christian dogma

313

4110

Jerusalem Talmudis edited by R. Muna ben Yonah, R.Yosi ben Bun

Julian the Apostate

350

4140

Hillel II - calendar. Theodosius forbids Sanhedrin to assemble. Calendar adopted at clandestine and maybe last meeting of the Sanhedrin.

 

380

4260

Babylonian Talmudis edited by Ravina and Rabbi Ashi.  Last time that all Jewish scholars voted and discussed issues and came to unanimous agreement on the contents of the Talmud.

Fall of Roman Empire

476

500

4360

Geonic period begins.
Rav Hai Gaon, Rav Sherira Gaon, Rav Achai Gaon

Beginnings of Islam – Mohammed

Split of Eastern and Western Churches

600

4384

Jews reject Islam and are expelled from Arabia. Rejection by Jews of Islam turns into hatred of Jews by Moslems.

Mohammed in Mecca and Medina

624-628

4397

Arabs invade Israel

 

637

4392

Emperor Heraclius decrees Jews of Byzantium to be forced into Christianity. 613-661 also in Spain, Gaul & Italy.

 

632

4471

90% of Jews live under Moslems. Generally better off under Islam than under Christianity - closer philosophically (monotheism) and ethnically. Jews are Dhimmis, a tolerated minority, under Islam, but are a persecuted minority under Christians. Judaism is problematic to Islam, but is a contradiction to Christianity.
Khazar nation in Azerbaijan converts to Judaism.

Moslem Arabs invade Spain

Split of Sunnis and Shi’ites

711

4527

Anan Ben David founds the Karaite movement and rejects the Oral Law

 

767

4650

Rabbi Saadya Gaonwrites the first systematic work of Jewish philosophy, partially to combat the Karaite challenge to tradition.

Emperor Charlemagne-771 – 814

890

4715

Growth of European and Nth. African Torah centers. Rabeinu Gershom, Light of the Exile, makes decrees against forced divorce, polygamy and reading others’ mail. Decline of Babylonian Academies

Vikings

955

4773

RIF - Rabbi Isaac Alfasi of  Morocco creates first condensation and codification of Jewish Law - R. Zerachiah Halevi writes critique of code.

 

1013

4800

Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki - RaSHICommentaries on virtually all classic texts. Concise and deep. Systematic grammar, translations, elucidation of verses based on Midrash and Talmud.

 

1040

 

Rabbi Avraham Ibn Ezra – Commentary on Torah, argues with Karaites using logic & grammar.

 

1092

4856

9th of Av - Start of First Crusade resulting in widespread slaughter of Jewish communities in the Rhineland.

Crusades

1096

4856

Godfrey de Boullion, leader of Crusade - "Kill the heretics amongst us before going to Holy Land."

 

1096

4859d> Jerusalem captured by the Crusaders and all Jews in the city are killed 1099

4895

Maimonides - Rambam, Rabi Moses ben Maimon - student of the Spanish, Middle Eastern & Nth. African schools. Wrote Guide for the Perplexed, Mishneh Torah – Comprehensive Code of Judaism, Book of the Commandments, 13 Principles of Faith, Commentary on Mishnah, Letters, Medical writings. Physician to the Egyptian court. Saladin is his patient.

Saladin leads Moslems in fight against Crusaders.

 

1135

4906

Expulsion from parts of Germany. Libels of desecrating the "host," and blood libels. Rabenu Yaakov Tam – Authors of commentary of Tosafas on Talmud - French and German schools of scholars.

 

 

4906

Second Crusade

 

1146

4909

Almohades bring Islamic intolerance to Spain fostering the spread of Spanish-Jewish culture outside the borders of Spain particularly in Provence, at the crossroads of  Spain and Europe.

 

1149

4910

R. Yehudah Hachasid - Chasidei Ashkenaz -  Era of the Pietists of Germany

Lateran Council – decrees badge of "shame" for Jews

1150 - 1217

4920

Benjamin of Tudela, Jewish traveler, writes the Travels of Benjamin

 

1160

4946

Expulsion from France

 

1186

4949

Third Crusade - Widespread massacres of Jews in England

Richard the Lion Heart

1189

4950

R. Yehudah Halevi – Writes his work of philosophy, the Kuzari, and many Hebrew poems. 

The Jews of York, in England, are massacred.

1190

4954

Nachmanides(1194 - 1270) Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nachman. Defender of earlier sages against later critiques. Commentaries on Bible and Talmud, great Kabbalist.

Saladin in Jerusalem

1194

4992

Burning of Maimonides’ Guide in Provence (possible contributing cause for later book-burning by anti – Semitic authorities)

 

1232

5000

Many authors of Tosafot immigrate to Israel.

 

1240

5002

Burning of 24 cartloads of Jewish books in Paris.

 

1242

5023

Disputation of Ramban with Pablo Christiani in Barcelona in 1263.
Rabenu Yona of Gerona writes The Gates of Repentance.
Rabbi Levi ben Gershon - Astronomer, inventor of Jacob’s Staff
Expulsion from England on the 9th of Av. 

Edward I

1290

5064

Rashba decrees ban of excommunication on the study of philosophy for those under 25 years of age.

 

1305

5065

Expulsion of Jews from most of France

 

1306

5116

Poisoning & conspiracy libels against Jews during Black Plague result in pogroms & expulsions. Rabenu Asher, the Rosh, flees from Germany to Toledo, Spain, the nexus of Sephardi and Ashkenazi cultures, which enables his son R. Yaakov to combine the scholarship of both in the Arbah Turim, the predecessor to the Code of Jewish Law.

Black Plague

1348 – 1351

1357

5155

Expulsion from Provence

 

1395

 

The Ibn Tibbon family, translate many major works of Jewish scholarship from Arabic to Hebrew.
Expulsion from Austria.
Continuous insecurity in Europe; discrimination, expulsions and pogroms. e.g. City of Speyer: Jews out 1405, in 1421, out 1430, in 1434, out 1435, in 1465

 

1395

5213

Ottoman Turks capture Israel from Moslems creating impetus for Jewish settlement in Israel although numbers are small.

Fall of Byzantium

1453

5235

First printing of Jewish books on printing press

 

1475

5252

Inquisition culminates with the expulsion from Spain on the 9th Av. Expulsions from Italy and Sicily.
Don Isaac Abarbanel - commentary on Tanach, advisor to Queen Isabella

Columbus sets sail for America

1492

5257

Portuguese expulsion

Leonardo Da Vinci

1497

5280

First printing of Talmud by Daniel Bomberg in Venice. Pagination, commentary selection and layout of Bomberg still used today.
Jewish books subject to Christian censorship.
15th and 16th Centuries see large migrations to Lithuania and Poland

The Reformation. Martin Luther - "The Jews & Their Lies."   Rejection leading to hatred

1520

5300

Kabbalists of Safed. Rav Yitzchak Luriah, The Ari (1534-72) Rabbi Chaim Vital, Rabbi Shlomo Alkabetz, author of Lecha Dodi, and  Alsheich. Aliyah gradually increases.

 

1540

5325

Code of Jewish Law - Shulchan Aruch - Rabbi Yosef Karo (1488-1575) R. Moses Isserless (1525-1572) Meets with almost universal acceptance. Many commentaries written on the Code.

Shakespeare - 1596 "Merchant of Venice" - No Jews in England since 1290

1565

5408

Chmielnicki Pogroms - unspeakable cruelty.  Jews dejected, searching for hope, feeling of immanent Messianic revelation. Total Jewish Population was 3.5 million. In Eastern Europe, 1.3 million.
100,000 were brutally murdered, and 300 communities destroyed.

Russian - Polish War
Bogdan Chmielnicki
Rembrandt

1648

5411

Shabtai Zvi , the false Messiah attracts with charisma, permissiveness,  false hope and mysticism

 

1651

5416

Spanish-Portuguese Jews establish the Touro Synagogue in Rhode Island, the first synagogue in America. Peter Stuyvesent is reluctant to admit Jews to New Amsterdam. Baruch Spinoza, the Dutch Jewish philosopher, forerunner of modern Bible criticism & perhaps unintentionally of modern anti-Semitism, is excommunicated in Amsterdam.

Oliver Cromwell

1656

5423

Shabtai Tzvi meets Nathan of Gaza who becomes his "Prophet"

 

1663

5426

Shabtai Tzvi abolishes the fast of the 9th of Av and declares a march on Jerusalem to capture it from the Sultan. He is imprisoned by the Sultan, converts to Islam, and is eventually executed.

Great Fire of London

Sir Isaac Newton

1666

5427

R. David Halevi Segal a refugee of pogroms, who lost two sons in pogroms, was exiled to Moravia. He and Rav Shabtai Cohen wrote two of the greatest commentaries on the Code of Jewish Law.

 

 

5460

Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov founds the Chassidic movement in Galicia, Ukraine and Podolia. Emphasis on the Rebbe, songs, joy, popularization of Kabbalistic teachings, sincerity, fervor, prayer and spontaneity.

Frederick I

1700

5461

Moses Chaim Luzzatto- (RaMCHaL) Responsible for systemization of Kabbalah into logical steps and making it more accessible.  His two great ethical classics are the Path of the Just, and The Way of G-d.

Leibnitz

1701

5473

R.Yehezkel Landau, author of many responsa, major opponent of the Chassidic movement.

 

1713-1793

5480

The Gaon(Genius), Rabbi Elijah of Vilna – the GRA.Believe in the supremacy of Torah study through the intellectual efforts of man. Was the principal opponent of Hassidism. He objected to excesses due to emphasis on joy and spontaneity, to charismatic (as opposed to intellectual) leadership, the popularization of Kabbalah (fear of Shabtai Zvi phenomenon), and new customs and changes in liturgy.
Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, author of mystical work, the Tanya, founds the Chabad–Lubavitch Chassidic movement.
Volozhin Yeshiva founded - "Mother of Yeshivos"

David Hume

Voltaire - "Religion of Reason"

1720

5516

Conflict of R. Yaakov Emden and R. Yonason Eybeshutz over accusations of Shabeteanism

 

1756

5536

Beginnings of liberalization in Western Europe. Some Jews are allowed to live outside the ghettos

American Revolution ends. Declaration of Independence

1776

5543

Moses Mendelssohn, proponent of "Religion due to Reason," writes a German translation of the Torah. His children assimilate, and his grandchildren were all baptized.
Beginnings of pseudo-scientific, racial anti-Semitism in Europe, which was fully blown in the late 19th Century developing ultimately into Nazism in the 20th century.

Immanuel Kant

1783

5549

The Emancipation - Emperor Franz-Josef grants citizenship to the Jews, entrance to universities and professions and permission to leave ghettoes and enter society.
Jews confined to Pales of Settlement in Russia

French Revolution

1789

5551

Equal rights for French Jews on condition. Napoleon states, "For the Jews as Jews nothing, for the Jews as Frenchmen everything."
There is heavy economic, social, intellectual and political pressure to assimilate. Four approaches are found in the Jewish community –

  1. Individual assimilation by Baptism and intermarriage. Heinrich Heine- "Baptism is the ticket of entry to European society"
  2.  Adaptation of Judaism to Zeitgeist as in the Reform movement and the "science of Judaism" ; Samuel Holdheim, early Reformer,  "we say merely this, anything which upon unbiased examination does not conform to the current religious spirit holds for us no authority."
  3. Isolation from emancipation and modernity, creation of voluntary ghetto to fight assimilation - Hassidism, Chasam Sofer.
  4. Involvement in modern world without compromising of Halachic standards - Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch.

Napoleon

French Constitution

1791

5575

Surnames introduced for Jews in Europe - 1803
Immigration to Israel by Chassidim and students of the Gaon of Vilna to Safed, Tiberias, Hebron, and Jerusalem. Rav Israel of  Shklov writes Pe’as Hashulchan, Code of Jewish Law, specifically for Israel.
Rothschild family - prominent bankers, are unofficial representatives of Jewish community.

Battle of Waterloo

1815

5578

Reform Movement founded.
Hamburg Reform Temple opens with bells, an organ, German prayers and sermon
Czar makes 600 anti-Semitic decrees in Russia and  forcibly recruits Jewish children into Russian army, known as Cantonists

Beethoven

Nicholas I – 1825 –1855

1818

5600

R. Samson Raphael Hirsch – Explains Judaism to the uninitiated – Writes Horeb, The Nineteen Letters and establishes modern Jewish Day School.
Damascus Blood Libel

Queen Victoria

Karl Marx - 1848

1840

5614

R. Israel Salanter founds the Mussar movement in Lithuania. Combating cold intellectualism, emphasis on ethics, self-improvement, general reinforcement of inner aspects of Judaism. Main students are: R. Isaac Blazer, R. Naftali Amsterdam, Alter of Kelm. Different approaches to self-improvement- Greatness of Man or lowliness of Man, self-criticism.

Crimean War – Florence Nightingale
American Civil War – 1861 – 1865
Electricity

1854

5641

Pogroms in the Ukraine. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) Prime Minister of England. Baptized by father as a child, but proud of Jewish roots.
Alexander II killed by Jewish anarchist causing anti-Semitic backlash in Russia

Immigration to USA, England, and
South  Africa

1881

5645

Reform movement in the USA. Pittsburgh Platform rejects commandments, Israel, kashrut etc.

 

1885

5646

Treif Banquet of Reform movement provokes reaction by more conservative members.
Founding of Jewish Theological Seminary by Solomon Morais and beginnings of the Conservative Movement.

Rise of nationalism in Europe and Balkans, especially Germany.

1886

5654

Dreyfus Trial, Theodore Herzl writes The Old-New State, creating the political Zionist movement.

Nicholas II- Czar of Russia

1894

5657

1st Zionist Congress in Basle.
Agudas Israel founded as political representative of non-Zionist Orthodox Jews.
Mass immigration of Jews to Israel.
Pioneers establish agricultural settlements in Israel.

First modern Olympic Games

1897

5663

Vote on Israel vs. Uganda or Madagascar at Zionist Congress.
Sir Moses Montefiore and the Rothchilds continue the tradition of the interceding with governments on behalf of Jews.
Mass immigrations to the United States - 2 million Jews by 1924. There is no official anti-Semitism in the USA, but there is no work for Shabbat observers, ignorance abounds, there is no quality Jewish education, and it is extremely difficult to keep kosher - many Jews abandon Orthodoxy and Judaism for these reasons.  Many came to the US with intent to abandon Judaism. Left-wing Yiddish newspapers, like the Jewish Daily Forward, are socialist and assimilationist, their view is that traditional Judaism is unsuitable for America.
Kishinev Pogrom
More Jews immigrate to Israel.

Sigmund Freud and psychoanalysis

1903

5664

Conservative Movement - Solomon Schechter

 

1904

5665

Protocols of the Elders of Zion – Anti-Semitic fabrication by Nilus, Russian agent and anti-Semite.
"Kill the Jews & save Russia" pogroms.

Albert Einstein – Relativity and E=MC2

1905

5673

Beilis Trial - blood libel in Russia.
Leo Frank lynched by mob in Georgia, USA, accused of ritual murder.

Bernard Malamud- The Fixer

1913

5674

First World War - Britain declares war on Germany on the 9th Av. Jews fight on both sides of the conflict. 500,000 Jewish soldiers fought in the War. Many Jews live in the battle zones.
Founding of Yeshiva University in New York.

1st World War

21 million wounded

8.5 million dead

1914

5677

The Balfour Declarationis written, in which Britain "viewed with favor" the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. 
Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan, the Chafetz Chaim, is famous for his campaigns for ethical speech.
Rabbi Chaim Soloveitchik of Brisk – Promotes in depth critical analysis of Talmud.
There are now3,250,000 Jews in the USA

Demonstration and riots against Czar Nicholas II

1917

5677

Britain Captures Palestine from Turks - General Allenby with assistance of Nili spy network.
Jews organize units in British army lead by Vladimir Jabotinsky and  Yosef Trumpeldor
Sarah Schnirer starts first Jewish school for girls, Beis Yaacov.

Bolshevik Revolution

Lawrence of Arabia

1917

5679

60,000 Jews killed during Russian Revolution. Petlurya in Ukraine establishes independence, pogroms begin, and thousands of Jews are brutally murdered.

Ukrainian independence
Treaty of Versailles

1919

5680

British Mandate over Palestine. The Jewish underground, the Hagganah organizes immigration into Palestine, the Irgun revolts against the British. Arabs attack Jewish settlements in Israel, Trumpeldor killed in Tel Chai..
Mordechai Kaplan founds the Reconstructionist Movement

League of Nations

1920

5681

Arabs riot in Jaffa killing 47 Jews. 4 Jews are killed defending Petach Tikvah

End of Russian civil war leaves Communists in power.

1921

5684

Rabbi Meir Shapiro of Lublin begins the Daf Yomi program – a coordinated daily study of a page of Talmud around the world, in which the Talmud is completed in about 7 1/2 years.

 

1923

5689

120,000 Jews now in Israel and 4,000,000 Jews in the USA
Arabs riot against Jews in Israel, and murder 67 Jews in Hebron, including the elderly, women and children. 
Franz Rosenzweig, an assimilated German-Jewish philosopher returns to Judaism after a 15 year search.
Rav Avraham Yitzchak Kook becomes the major ideologue of the religious Zionist movement.

Wall Street Crash

The Great Depression

1929

5696

18 Jews killed in Arab riots in Tel-Aviv and Jaffa. This marks the beginning of the "Arab Revolt" that claimed the lives of 500 Jews over the next three years.

 

1936

5698

Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, incited by Nazis, in which Jews are attacked and killed, businesses, homes and synagogues ransacked and burnt down. Tens of thousands are sent to concentration camps.

United States introduces 5 day work week.

1938

5699

Britain introduces "White Papers" that drastically reduce Jewish immigration to Israel. Britain imprisons Jewish refugees in Cyprus, and in camps in Israel, and sends many back to Europe.

Second World War begins with German invasion of Poland

1939

5699

The Nazis systematically murder 6,000,000 in the Holocaust with the enthusiastic help of much of the Gentile population in Europe. The world is indifferent to the suffering of the Jews.
Warsaw Ghetto Revolt
Rav Aharon Kotler establishes Lakewood Yeshiva in New Jersey, which grows into largest Yeshivah outside of Israel.
Ponevezh Yeshivah, founded in Bnei Brak by Rav Kahaneman

40 million die in Europe

1939

 

 

1943

5708

The State of Israel Declares Independence after the United Nations vote for partition of Palestine. Arabs reject the vote and attack Israel, beginning the War of Independence. 600,000 Jewish refugees from Arab countries flee to Israel. 400,000 Arab refugees from Israel flee to Arab countries.
Renewal of Yeshivos in Israel.
Assimilation and secularization of Sephardi Jewry.

Berlin Blockade

Kennedy

1948

5716

Sinai Campaign.

Russia in Hungary

1956

 

War of Attrition - Fedayeen, hijackings, snipers, Katushyas, bombs and terrorism.

Pope apologizes for Christian anti-semitism.
PLO Covenant written.

1964

5727

Six-Day War and the Liberation of Jerusalem on the 28th of Iyar. The Western Wall, Hebron, the Golan Heights, Gaza, Judea, Samaria and the Sinai Peninsula are now in Jewish hands.
The Soviet Union breaks ties with Israel.
The Vatican calls for internationalization of Jerusalem

Vietnam War

Martin Luther King

1967

5727

The Baal-Teshuva Movement – Secular Jewish youth start to return to Judaism
Refuseniks in Russia, return to Judaism, attempt to immigrate to Israel. Founding of Yeshivot for beginners -  Ohr Somayach,  Aish Hatorah,  Dvar Yerushalayim, Machon Shlomo, Neve Yerushalayim

Russia invades Czechoslovakia – 1968
Landing on moon – 1969
Northern Ireland

1967

5733

The Yom-Kippur War, in which Israel is attacked by the Arab nations, leaves Israel with two day’s ammunition left before US airlift, and 2,500 Israeli soldiers killed. More Israelis return to Judaism than after ’67 war. Israel experiences profound demoralization, increased emigration from Israel, and a lack of idealism amongst the secular Zionists increases.

Watergate

Arab Oil Embargo

1973

5737

Peace treaty with Egyptby Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat results in the loss of the Sinai peninsula and with a "Cold peace"
Ethiopian Jews start coming to Israel.
Miracle at Entebbe – In 1976, Israeli commandos free Jewish hijack victims in Uganda.

 

Arabs alienate Egypt for making peace with Israel

1977

5741

Israel bombs Iraqi nuclear reactor and receives worldwide condemnation UN resolution condemning attack sponsored by Kuwait

 

1981

5742

The Lebanon War —Katushyas, hostages, terrorism. PLO’s state within a state. Siege of Beirut.

 

1982

5749

Start of the Intifada, massive unrest and violent protest by Palestinians which ultimately lead to the signing of the Oslo Accords.

Fall of Berlin Wall – 1989

1987

5750

Mass immigration of Russian Jews to Israel

Glasnost and Perestroika under Gorbachev

1990

5750

Gulf War - Iraq invades Kuwait- US troops in Saudi Arabia - UN ultimatum January 15th - USA attacks Iraq 16th - air bombardments. February 23 - Coalition forces enter Kuwait and Iraq and begin the ground-war.  39 Iraqi Scud missiles land in Israel, the population of Israel receives gas masks, but the attacks result in only two casualties.

Gulf War

1990

5751

Russian immigration continues.  Rescue of Ethiopian Jewry.

Abandonment of Kurds.

1991

5753

Signing of the Oslo Accords – Yitzchak Rabin and Yassir Arafat

 

1993

5756

Assassination of Prime Minister Rabin - wave of anti-religious sentiment sweeps country.  Likud government under Netanyahu elected.

 

1995

5760

Election of Ehud Barak and a Labour government. Success of rabidly anti-religious Shinui and Meretz parties.  Success of religious Sephardi, Shas party. Barak begins negotiations with Syria.

Fears of Y2K bug

Millennium fever

1999

5761

Arafat rejects Barak’s offers of joint sovereignty of Jerusalem and giving up 95% of Judea and Samaria.
Begins new assault on Israel with extensive attacks on civilians everywhere..

 

2000

5761

Ariel "Arik" Sharon elected as Prime Minister

 

2001

 


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